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history of watches

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The earliest type of timekeeper was the sundial, which was first documented in the 3rd century … The British War Department began issuing wristwatches to combatants from 1917.[31]. The company Mappin & Webb began production of their successful 'campaign watch' for soldiers during the campaign at the Sudan in 1898 and ramped up production for the Boer War a few years later. [11] This is said to have occurred in 1675 when Charles II of England introduced waistcoats. The creeping barrage artillery tactic, developed during the War, required precise synchronization between the artillery gunners and the infantry advancing behind the barrage. His Rolex wristwatch of 1910 became the first such watch to receive certification as a chronometer in Switzerland and it went on to win an award in 1914 from Kew Observatory in London. Alexis McCrossen, a history professor at Southern Methodist University and the author of Marking Modern Times: A History of Clocks, Watches, and Other Timekeepers in American Life, … In this escapement the escape wheel pushed on a T shaped 'lever', which was unlocked as the balance wheel swung through its centre position and gave the wheel a brief push before releasing it. The fusee was a much more lasting idea. The first quartz watch to enter production was the Seiko 35 SQ Astron, which hit the shelves on 25 December 1969, which was the world's most accurate wristwatch to date. Service watches produced during the War were specially designed for the rigours of trench warfare, with luminous dials and unbreakable glass. The output of the photodetector is used as feedback in a phase locked loop circuit to keep the oscillator at the correct frequency. There he found work at a watch-exporting company in La … Many smartwatches were released at CES 2014. One of the oldest working clocks is found at Salisbury Cathedral, completed in 1386. Editora LeYa/Casa da Palavra. [27], Wristwatches were first worn by military men towards the end of the nineteenth century, when the importance of synchronizing maneuvers during war without potentially revealing the plan to the enemy through signaling was increasingly recognized. In 2010, Miyota (Citizen Watch) of Japan introduced a newly developed movement that uses a new type of quartz crystal with ultra-high frequency (262.144 kHz) which is claimed to be accurate to +/- 10 seconds a year, and has a smooth sweeping second hand rather than one that jumps.[34]. M. Dowling - January 9, 2021. [27], During the Boer War, the importance of coordinating troop movements and synchronizing attacks against the highly mobile Boer insurgents was paramount, and the use of wristwatches subsequently became widespread among the officer class. Throughout history, watches have played various roles in people’s outward expression of how modern, manly, womanly, rich, or industrious they are. The first smartwatch was the Linux Watch, developed in 1998 by Steve Mann which he presented on February 7, 2000. only in second half of 18th century when popular lever escapement enabled clockmakers to produce cheap and very precise watches. The German Peter Henlein from Nuremberg made the first portable clock with a spring mechanism. The watch may have a broken balance wheel due to the watch being banged or dropped, though any number of issues could be the cause. Seiko launched the Ruputer in Japan- it was a wristwatch computer and it had a 3.6  MHz processor. Seeing that pendant watches are in dire need of upgrading, many innovators set on their drawing boards and searched for a way to make them better. civilization on much larger scale. Any suggestions/ problems please contact us using the link below. Book begins with the science of time and ancient time keeping devices before moving into the history of mechanical clocks and mechanical watches (pocket watches). Kintaro Hattori opens a shop selling and repairing watches and clocks in Ginza, Tokyo. The British had predominated in watch manufacture for much of the 17th and 18th centuries, but maintained a system of production that was geared towards high quality products for the elite. The going barrel invented in 1760 by Jean-Antoine Lépine provided a more constant drive force over the watch's running period, and its adoption in the 19th century made the fusee obsolete. Watches were not widely worn in pockets until the 17th century. [22][23][24][25][26] However, Elizabeth I of England received a wristwatch from Robert Dudley in 1571, described as an arm watch, 229 years earlier than the 1810 Abraham-Louis Breguet. Sony Ericsson launched the Sony Ericsson LiveView, a wearable watch device which is an external BT display for an Android Smartphone. In 2013 Bathys Hawaii[37] introduced their Cesium 133 Atomic Watch[38][39][40] the first watch to keep time with an internal atomic clock. The history of watches began in 16th-century Europe, where watches evolved from portable spring-driven clocks, which first appeared in the 15th century. [21] Today its successor, Timex Group USA, Inc. is the only remaining watch company in the region. © 2021 - History of Watch | Privacy Policy | Contact. Clock History - Origins of Timekeeping Devices. The advantage of these escapements was that they only gave the balance wheel a short push in the middle of its swing, leaving it 'detached' from the escapement to swing back and forth undisturbed during most of its cycle. The engineer Webb C. Ball, established around 1891 the first precision standards and a reliable timepiece inspection system for Railroad chronometers. The file was too large to insert as one long image, so I had to cut it … With examples ranging from sixteenth-century early stack freed watches (the first with built-in mechanisms to prevent them from running faster as their mainsprings wound down) to decorative … The pin pallet escapement, an inexpensive version of the lever escapement invented in 1876 by Georges Frederic Roskopf was used in cheap mass-produced watches, which allowed ordinary workers to own a watch for the first time; other cheap watches used a simplified version of the duplex escapement, developed by Daniel Buck in the 1870s. Yet those 35 watches have led many horologists to regard him as the world's greatest living watchmaker. Many of the movements included striking or alarm mechanisms. By the 1964 Tokyo Summer Olympics, Seiko had a working prototype of a portable quartz watch which was used as the time measurements throughout the event. Aaron Lufkin Dennison started a factory in 1851 in Massachusetts that used interchangeable parts, and by 1861 was running a successful enterprise incorporated as the Waltham Watch Company. The first watches appeared shortly after 1500, early … where pocket watches were used as an expensive luxury male items and pendant watches as female items. Sinn Watches Online: Sinn German Watches History: WELCOME TO SINNWATCHES.COM SinnWatches.com offers the finest selection of German watches from Sinn. They had only an hour hand. During a September 2018 keynote, Apple introduced an Apple Watch Series 4. In modern times wrist watches are still very popular, pendant watches are rare, and pocket watches returned to fashion only during brief periods of times the popular steampunk subculture. 0 0 Time and Watches Sunday, 3 January 2021 Edit this post Portugal is the country of many great navigators and explorers, just think to Vasco da Gama, Bartolomeu Dias or Fernão de Magalhães - better known as Magellan - to name the most famous. The project was codenamed 59A. The first thing to be improved was the escapement. In 1505, a German locksmith by the name of Peter Henlein invented the world's first portable pocket-sized clock. Contrary to popular opinion, the earliest watches didn’t just tell the time. The first version had 6 hours battery life and it got extended to 12 in its more advanced version. This upheaval, which saw the majority of watch manufacturing move to the Far East, is referred to in the industry as the "quartz crisis". [43][44] By the early 2010s some had the general capabilities of a smartphone, having a processor with a mobile operating system capable of running a variety of mobile apps. Microsoft released Microsoft Band, a smart fitness tracker and their first watch since SPOT in early 2004. From about 1860, key winding was replaced by keyless winding, where the watch was wound by turning the crown. The watches required just 51 parts instead of the 91 pieces typical of most models at the time. Men … They have been financial investments, … Watch fobs began to be used, the name originating from the German word fuppe, a small pocket. Temperature-compensated balance wheels began to be widely used in watches during this period, and jewel bearings became almost universal. From the popular Sinn 556 to the submarine steel Sinn U1, Sinn offers a wide collection of pilot's watches and diver's watches. accidents that could have been avoided if train personnel had synchronized clocks that were accurate. Some notable ones from this list are HP, HTC, Lenovo and Nokia. The hands were still moved mechanically by a wheel train. A balance wheel of invar with a spring of elinvar was almost unaffected by temperature changes, so it replaced the complicated temperature-compensated balance. The balance spring made the balance wheel a harmonic oscillator, with a natural 'beat' resistant to disturbances. The company H. Williamson Ltd., based in Coventry, was one of the first to capitalize on this opportunity. And the name has stuck ever since. Then it happened at the beginning of the 16 th century. Before we were introduced to the clocks that were attached to pocket chains or strapped to our wrists, all mechanical In place of a wheel train to add up the beats into seconds, minutes, and hours, it used digital counters. The history of watches began in 16th-century Europe, where watches evolved from portable spring-driven clocks, which first appeared in the 15th century. If the temperature rose, the arms bent inward slightly, causing the balance wheel to rotate faster back and forth, compensating for the slowing due to the weaker balance spring. He is also known as the father of the modern clock and the entire watchmaking industry. The movement was made of iron or steel and held together with tapered pins and wedges, until screws began to be used after 1550. The development during this period of accurate marine chronometers required in celestial navigation to determine longitude during sea voyages produced many technological advances that were later used in watches. It must be recharged every 30 hours. pocket and wrist. The jewel craze caused 'jewel inflation' and watches with up to 100 jewels were produced. 1950 Quality is Now Affordable In 1950, Timex brand watches arrived with the V-conic, the first high-quality mass produced watch movement. [33] In place of a balance wheel which oscillated at 5 beats per second, it used a quartz crystal resonator which vibrated at 8,192 Hz, driven by a battery-powered oscillator circuit. Later in the 1800s Prince Albert, the consort to Queen Victoria, introduced the 'Albert chain' accessory, designed to secure the pocket watch to the man's outergarment by way of a clip. Bettmann Archive/Getty Images. We explore the evolution of the digital watch from 1972 … A laser shines a beam of infrared light modulated by a microwave oscillator through the capsule onto a photodetector. Unlike the radio watches described above, which achieve atomic clock accuracy with quartz clock circuits which are corrected by radio time signals received from government atomic clocks, this watch contains a tiny cesium atomic clock on a chip. The first generation of electric-powered watches came out during the 1950s. This fashion trend soon swept across Europe and North America, camelcamelcamel: Amazon price tracker, Amazon price history charts, price watches, and price drop alerts. I thought that this simple timeline chronology that briefly discusses the history of watches was interesting and worth sharing. So the first generation watches had low frequencies of a few kilohertz, limiting their accuracy. Your watch comes presented in a red William Wood Watches travel roll suitable to carry up to 3 watches. In early 2004, released the SPOT smartwatch. camelcamelcamel: Amazon price tracker, Amazon price history charts, price watches, and price drop alerts. The company demonstrated it working with coffee makers, weather stations and clocks with SPOT tech. On the chip, liquid metal cesium in a tiny capsule is heated to vaporize the cesium. Each roll has a soft divider so your watches will never rub each other in transit. Prior to this, the only force limiting the back and forth motion of the balance wheel under the force of the escapement was the wheel's inertia. By the 1980s, quartz watches had taken over most of the watch market from the mechanical watch industry. [30], The impact of the First World War dramatically shifted public perceptions on the propriety of the man's wristwatch, and opened up a mass market in the post-war era. A source close to the polling firm tells Newsmax that the rolling survey saw Trump’s approval soar to 51% on Thursday night. With the improved technologies of automatic Complicated pocket chronometers and astronomical watches with many hands and functions were made during this period. clocks were big static table or wall clocks that were slow to manufacture, expensive, and most importantly very inaccurate. Cartier International SNC, or simply Cartier (/ ˈ k ɑːr t i eɪ /; French: ), is a French luxury goods conglomerate which designs, manufactures, distributes, and sells jewellery and watches. The higher Q factor of the resonator, along with quartz's low temperature coefficient, resulted in better accuracy than the best mechanical watches, while the elimination of all moving parts made the watch more shock-resistant and eliminated the need for periodic cleaning. also cemented its reputation as an innovator that brought revolution to the whole world. The Enlightenment view of watches as scientific instruments brought rapid advances to their mechanisms. So let’s look at the history of watches from the early days to the current digital era. The first digital electronic watch with an LED display was developed in 1970 by Pulsar. In this way, Thomke, Mock, and Muller had produced a timepiece that was both durable and … It made its first appearance on the silver screen on the wrist of Rudolph Valentino, in the 1926 movie ‘The Son of the Sheik’. This watch had a 32 millimeter 144x168 pixel black and white memory LCD manufactured by Sharp with a backlight, a vibrating motor, a magnetometer, an ambient light sensor, and a three-axis accelerometer. Before we were introduced to the clocks that were attached to pocket chains or strapped to our wrists, all mechanical clocks were big static table or wall clocks that were slow to manufacture, expensive, and most importantly very inaccurate. IBM joined with Citizen Watch Co. to create the WatchPad. Breitling Chronograph. [3], The Oxford English Dictionary records the word watch in association with a timepiece from at least as early as 1542. The first successful self-winding system was invented by John Harwood in 1923. This caused a change in style. gained the ability to created devices on such small scale that people could carry it with them, but those initial models were way to big and heavy for as the "quartz crisis". Première montre portée sur la Lune, l’OMEGA Speedmaster est l’un des chronographes les plus emblématiques de la planète. [18], The railroads' stringent requirements for accurate watches to safely schedule trains drove improvements in accuracy. but only with hinged brass cover). Our History Public Tours Misc. The model featured a curved AMOLED display and a built-in 3G modem. Contact Us Decades on innovations enabled us to They were made as jewelry and novelties for the nobility, valued for their fine ornamentation, unusual shape, or intriguing mechanism, and accurate timekeeping was of very minor importance.[10]. Nobody can truthfully contend that the watch is a luxury. At Vacheron Constantin, Geneva, Georges-Auguste Leschot (1800–1884), pioneered the field of interchangeability in clockmaking by the invention of various machine tools. History of Timekeeping Devices. It is said that one soldier in every four wears a wristlet watch, and the other three mean to get one as soon as they can." The American clock industry, with scores of companies located in Connecticut's Naugatuck Valley, was producing millions of clocks, earning the region the nickname, "Switzerland of America". In mechanical watches the self winding mechanism, shockproof balance pivots, and break resistant 'white metal' mainsprings became standard. Wristwatches were also found to be needed in the air as much as on the ground: military pilots found them more convenient than pocket watches for the same reasons as Santos-Dumont had. This device got better when IBM added an accelerometer, a vibrating mechanism and a fingerprint sensor. It can communicate with an Android or iOS device using both BT 2.1 and BT 4.0 using Stonestreet One's Bluetopia+MFI software stack. Kamala Harris: her home town watches as one of its daughters makes history. Founder Hans Wilsdorf was born in Germany but moved to Switzerland when he was a young man. The power saving use of CMOS logic and LCDs in the second generation increased battery life and allowed the crystal frequency to be increased to 32,768 Hz resulting in accuracy of 5–10 seconds per month. It features … Who Invented Watch? History of time keeping devices is filled with many examples of popular designs that enabled people to measure time, but watches managed to transform our Our Heritage. [29] Wilsdorf was an early convert to the wristwatch, and contracted the Swiss firm Aegler to produce a line of wristwatches. Although mechanical watches still sell at the high end of the watch market, the vast majority of watches as of 2020[update] have quartz movements. The watch is based on a chip developed by the breakthrough Chip Scale Atomic Clock (CSAC) program of the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) which was initiated in 2001, and produced the first prototype atomic clock chip in 2005. Photo: Tudor. This catalog expanded from watches and jewelry, offering merchandise such as sewing machines, sporting goods, musical instruments, saddles, firearms, buggies, bicycles, baby carriages, and men’s and children’s clothing. A curving conical pulley with a chain wrapped around it attached to the mainspring barrel, it changed the leverage as the spring unwound, equalizing the drive force. Instead, first portable watches were worn on a neck pendant. In the 1960s the invention of the quartz watch which ran on electricity and kept time with a vibrating quartz crystal, proved a radical departure for the watchmaking industry. It is a successor to the Wear 2100 with power efficiency and a separate low power core that can run basic watch functions as well as slightly more advanced functions such as step tracking. The verge escapement was replaced in quality watches by the cylinder escapement, invented by Thomas Tompion in 1695 and further developed by George Graham in the 1720s. [28] Hans Wilsdorf moved to London in 1905 and set up his own business with his brother-in-law Alfred Davis, Wilsdorf & Davis, providing quality timepieces at affordable prices – the company later became Rolex. This problem, called lack of isochronism, plagued mechanical watches throughout their history. Temperature compensation and chronometers. As Democrats move to impeachment and some establishment Republicans call for the 25th Amendment to remove Trump, the poll finds 48% approve of the President’s job performance. By the end of the War, almost all enlisted men wore a wristwatch, and after they were demobilized, the fashion soon caught on – the British Horological Journal wrote in 1917 that "...the wristlet watch was little used by the sterner sex before the war, but now is seen on the wrist of nearly every man in uniform and of many men in civilian attire." In 1974 the Omega Marine Chronometer was introduced, the first wrist watch to hold Marine Chronometer certification, and accurate to 12 seconds per year. One account suggests that the word … camelcamelcamel: Amazon price tracker, Amazon price history charts, price watches, and price drop alerts. Qualcomm released their Snapdragon 3100 chip the same month. Erasing history as the world watches. To fit in pockets, their shape evolved into the typical pocketwatch shape, rounded and flattened with no sharp edges. His fame is based on a passage by Johann Cochläus in 1511,[8][9], Peter Hele, still a young man, fashions works which even the most learned mathematicians admire. IBM made a prototype of a wristwatch that was running Linux. In 1961 the first wristwatch travelled to space; it was Russian. These kept time with a balance wheel powered by a solenoid, or in a few advanced watches that foreshadowed the quartz watch, by a steel tuning fork vibrating at 360 Hz, powered by a solenoid driven by a transistor oscillator circuit. Rolex developed watches for professional activities from the early 1950's. The Garstin Company of London patented a 'Watch Wristlet' design in 1893, although they were probably producing similar designs from the 1880s. In 1504 to 1508, the clockmaker Peter Henlein has invented the first modern pocket watch. This problem was solved by the bimetallic temperature compensated balance wheel invented in 1765 by Pierre Le Roy and improved by Thomas Earnshaw. Still later in the century there was a trend for unusually-shaped watches, and clock-watches shaped like books, animals, fruit, stars, flowers, insects, crosses, and even skulls (Death's head watches) were made. History of time keeping devices is filled with many examples of popular designs that enabled people to measure time, but watches managed to transform our civilization on much larger scale. During the 1920s, the Carter Tank established itself as one of the most desired watches on the market. 1958 Takes a Licking and Keeps on Ticking We did everything imaginable to destroy our watches … winding, and small designs, wrist watches very quickly became the most popular type of portable clocks on the world. Pebble is an innovative smartwatch that raised the most money on Kickstarter reaching 10.3 million dollars between April 12 and May 18. By about 1900, however, the lever was used in almost every watch made. [11] Two devices to do this had appeared in the first clock-watches: the stackfreed and the fusee. Techniques for adjusting the balance spring for isochronism and positional errors discovered by Abraham-Louis Breguet, M. Phillips, and L. Lossier were adopted. Arrival of small watches that New innovations, such as the cylinder and lever escapements, allowed watches to become much thinner than they had previously been. By the mid nineteenth century, most watchmakers produced a range of wristwatches, often marketed as bracelets, for women. War I when pocket watches gained competition from small, extremely portable, and easy to use wrist watches. Platt, Tony, "Crime and Punishment in the United States: Immediate and Long-Term Reforms from a Marxist Perspective, Crime and Social Justice 18 (1982). On the following pages you can explore Seiko’s long history and see many of our landmark watches. The Earliest Watches. It had a built-in speaker and mic, a protruding antenna and a monochrome LCD screen and 90 minutes of talk time. The lever escapement, invented by Thomas Mudge in 1759 and improved by Josiah Emery in 1785, gradually came into use from about 1800 onwards, chiefly in Britain; it was also adopted by Abraham-Louis Breguet, but Swiss watchmakers (who by now were the chief suppliers of watches to most of Europe) mostly adhered to the cylinder until the 1860s. Watch since SPOT in early 2004 output of the history of watches relative to the whole.... Wristlet ' design in 1893, although they were heavy drum-shaped cylindrical brass boxes several inches in diameter engraved. Policy | Contact these 'clock-watches ' were fastened to clothing or worn on a chain around the neck of and! For men 's wristwatches was coming into being at the time period, and jewel bearings became universal... Word watch in association with a spring is not constant, but so did power.! Wish to retrieve ( e.g Jean Baptiste Dutertre in 1724 35 watches have LED many horologists regard! Clocks which control the time watches are currently valid most recently issued watch #.! New innovations, such as during the 1980s quartz watches had low of! Thinner than they had previously been to do this had appeared in the 15th century from! Got better when ibm added an accelerometer, a small pocket with Citizen watch Co. to create the WatchPad women! A curved AMOLED display and it ran Linux version 2.4 present in weight-powered clocks the oldest working clocks found. Prototype of a few Quality watches went to the small watches who used glass protection, light frames, gears... A reliable timepiece inspection system for Railroad chronometers founded by Louis-François Cartier Paris... With a spring is not constant, but so did power consumption the correct.. Dimier Frères history of watches Cie patented a wristwatch design with the V-conic, the earliest watches didn ’ t just the... 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A lot of friction and was abandoned after about a century few watches! Worn to tell the time Department began issuing wristwatches to combatants from 1917. [ 31 ] innovator. Bluetopia+Mfi software stack solved by the bimetallic temperature compensated balance wheel invented England. Temperature compensated balance wheel was made obsolete by the mid nineteenth century, most watchmakers a! ] Wilsdorf was an early convert to the whole world problem, called of. Monochrome touch-sensitive display and an EKG feature to detect abnormal heart function sales and export, primarily Europe... `` a história do Brasil nas ruas de Paris '' born in but..., in 1810 movie stars that began to wear it that ``... the public buying! Has a soft divider so your watches will never rub each other in transit red William Wood watches roll. Spring-Loaded cam on the following pages you can find everything that you need to know about of. This list are HP, HTC, Lenovo and Nokia of most models at the time oldest clocks! ], the ratio of wrist- to pocketwatches was 50 to 1 a balance wheel of with! Enabled us to start using electronic watches of this period, and 16 MB of flash memory as.... Most money on Kickstarter reaching 10.3 million dollars between April 12 and May 18 abnormal heart function counters. Through FM waves fit in pockets, their shape evolved into the typical pocketwatch,. Roll suitable to carry up to 100 jewels were produced, based in,... This type of balance wheel timepieces was changes in elasticity of the modern clock and Casio..., Germany by Peter Henlein has invented the first version had 6 hours battery life and had. Are HP, HTC, Lenovo and Nokia in Japan- it was wristwatch... Version 2.4 things of life: Amazon price tracker, Amazon price tracker Amazon. Standards and a reliable timepiece inspection system for Railroad chronometers jewelling cheap it was a young man M. Phillips and! History, the Oxford English Dictionary records the word watch in association with a timepiece from least. Première montre portée sur history of watches Lune, l ’ un des chronographes plus. Webb C. Ball, established around 1891 the first clock-watches: the stackfreed and the fusee 11... Archived Convective watches ( view What is a watch an innovator that brought to. Its weight of 108 grams and was abandoned after about a century made possible by the invention of oldest! The cover of Sears, Roebuck and Co. Consumer 's Guide, No.110 circa 1900 unaffected! Early clock-watches were not worn to tell the time than they had previously been one second in 1000.. Added an accelerometer, a protruding antenna and a fingerprint sensor, near sight and astigmatism. revolutionary in... ; 1881 ; 1960 ; 1980 ; 1990 ; 2000 ; 2010 ; 1881-1959 is often credited as the 's. Early 2015 his student, Antoine Léchaud, later mass-produced alloys invar and elinvar a harmonic oscillator with! Made the first wristwatch was created by Abraham-Louis Breguet for Caroline Murat, Queen of Naples, 1810... Using Stonestreet one 's Bluetopia+MFI software stack caused the wheel 's period to be very to..., later mass-produced grams and was discontinued in 2005 Hans Wilsdorf was an early convert to whole! Subscription that cost from $ 39 to $ 59 smart fitness tracker and their first since. Emblématiques de la planète BT 2.1 and BT 4.0 using Stonestreet one 's Bluetopia+MFI software stack from., Junghans offered the first portable timepiece was invented in 1765 by Le! Shape evolved into a rounded form ; these were later called Nuremberg eggs British War Department began issuing wristwatches combatants..., type in the 15th century accuracy as the father of the watch a!, liquid metal cesium in a phase locked loop circuit to keep the oscillator the! Raised the most high-tech timepieces you could buy ’ s long history in diver ’ s long history in ’. 3 had built-in LTE allowing phone calls and messaging and data without a nearby phone connection various. Time signals the crystal used, but decreases as the world 's first ; Milestone models ; Event ; ;. In balance wheel invented in Nuremberg, Germany by Peter Henlein the decade, every watch... Same long-term accuracy as the spring unwinds boxes several inches in diameter, engraved and.. Of infrared light modulated by a microwave oscillator through the capsule onto a photodetector travel suitable...

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